Mormon History 1830-1844


Outrage in Jackson County
With the December 1833 issue of the Evening and Morning Star, editor Oliver Cowdery commences a series of articles titled "Outrage in Jackson." The first installment begins with an article from the Boonville Herald, which downplays violence in Jackson county except a Mormon ambush §. Also published is Orson Hyde's November 8, 1833 letter to the editor which reports the destruction of homes at the Whitmer settlement on October 31, destruction of the Mormon press and store in Independence on November 1, and a battle above the Big Blue river on the 2nd §. The letter written the next day to the Missouri Republican provides further details §.
An extract from an October 30 letter emphasizes the defensive posture of the Mormons §. Extracts from November letters detail the attack of October 31 and subsequent events § to the desperate attempts of refugees to escape the violence beginning on November 5 § and additional details through November 17 §.
    THE OUTRAGE IN JACKSON COUNTY, MISSOURI.
 
<i>The Evening and the Morning Star</i>
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">EMS 2, no. 15 (Dec. 1833): 118–120.
Star introduction We give, below, a letter to the Editors of the BOONVILLE HERALD, printed at Boonville, Mo. written by brother O. Hyde on board the Steam Boat Charleston, on her passage from Independence to that place, with the remarks of the Editors upon the same, commencing thus:
 
Herald article

Captain and clerk authenticate Hyde's account

Must be exaggerated
"The Mormon War.—The following statement of the recent beligerent attitudes assumed by the people of Jackson and the Mormonites, was handed to us by an individual who passed this place on board S. B. CHARLESTON. Although it was the statement of a Mormon yet coming as it did, apparently authenticated by Capt. GUNSOLES and his Clerk, we were at the time disposed to believe it correct. But it is certainly an exagerated account.
   
Col. McLelland, a man of superlative honor   Since it was committed to the column, we have seen and conversed with Col. A. MCLELLAND, of Jackson County, who was several days later from Independence. We know Col. MC L. to be a man of the most superlative honor. We have no hesitation, whatever, in vouching for his assertions.    
Denies houses destroyed or maltreatment of Mormons   He denies the demolishing of houses and otherwise maltreating the Mormons—although he says the greatest excitement and exasperation has prevailed. So much so that it has become fashionable to carry arms.    
Mormons attacked negotiating party   But he says there never was but one skirmish, in which the Mormons were the assailants. It was brought about in consequence of a small party of men who proceeded out to the Mormon settlement for the purpose of holding a consultation with them, respecting their stipulated removal from the county.    
Ambush   They were fired on by a party of Mormons in ambush. They were only partially armed, and were rather disposed to evade a rencontre. The unfortunate BRAZEAL ascended a log, and distinctly proclaimed peace. But the Mormons kept up a heedless fire,—when it was found necessary to act on the defensive.    
Brazeal and Linville killed, several wounded, one Mormon killed   The conflict lasted for several minutes. Mr. Brazeal and a Mr. Linville fell dead on the spot. Several were severely wounded. It is not positively known whether more than one Mormon was killed or not. There was only one discovered dead on the battle-field.    
Hicks not killed

Independence peaceful
  Mr. HYDE'S statement of a second engagement, and of the death of Mr. HICKS, is entirely unfounded. Mr. Hicks, was not in the County at the time—but was attending the Court of Lafayette. Col. MCL. further states that things were entirely tranquil at the time of his departure—and the Mormons dispersing.—   Russell Hicks chaired the July 20, 1833 citizens' organizing meeting. ¶ Missouri Persecutions (2).
    [Evening and Morning Star continuation]   "Civil War," Daily Missouri Republican, November 12, 1833. Source    
    ON BOARD STEAMBOAT CHARLESTON, November 8, 1833.   On Board Steam Boat Charleston,
St. Louis, Nov. 9th, 1833.
   
      Messers. Editors—I take this opportunity to give you and your readers a brief sketch of the most flagrant and outrageous violation of the constitution of our country than has taken place since it was framed.    
      I am a member of the church of Christ, (reproachfully called Mormons or Mormonites) and am directly from Independence, the seat of war and bloodshed in the United States.    
Orson Hyde account   Messrs. ED.—I am two days from Independence, the seat of war, and it may be acceptable to yourselves and also to your readers to be made acquainted with some of the particulars respecting it.        

Mob of 40–50

Partly demolish 12 homes

B
eat two men

On Thursday night, October 31, some 40 or 50 persons belonging to the Mob, assembled above Big Blue, eight or ten miles west of Independence, and in part demolished 12 of the dwelling houses belonging to the Mormons and occupied by them at the time. The Mob took two of the Mormonite men and beat them with stones and clubs, leaving barely a breath of life in them >.

On Thursday night, Oct. 31, some forty or fifty of the citizens of Jackson county, Mo. assembled above Blue, (a river about eight or ten miles west of Independence,) and, in part demolished twelve of the houses of our people who occupied them at the time. The inmates were obliged to escape to the woods, women and children running in every direction, halloing and screaming; and the men, being taken by surprise in the dead hour of the night, were unprepared to defend themselves if they had been disposed. They took two of our men and beat them with stones and clubs, leving only a breath of life in them. After this the mob dispersed, it being about 3 o'clock in the morning.

   
Attack store, destroy Gilbert's home, damage others  

Friday night, November 1, the Mob broke open the Store of Gilbert and Whitney, and scattered their goods through the street. They demolished Mr. Gilbert's brick dwelling house, and broke in the doors and windows of all the dwellings in Independence belonging to the Mormons >.

Friday night, Nov. 1, the mob broke open the store of Gilbert & Whitney, and scattered their goods through the streets. They demolished Gilbert's brick dwelling house, and broke in the doors and windows of all the dwellings in Independence belonging to our people.   They "pulled down the printing office, (a brick building,) and threw the roof into the highway. They were about to proceed to the same act of violence against the store, when a parley took place, and the parties came to terms of accommodation. The Mormmons were to close up their business and were all to move away before another summer, while the other party bound themselves to pay all damages done to the printing office, &c." Rev. Benton Pixley (Independence) to editor, Nov. 7, 1833, New York Observer, reprint in Cincinnati Journal, Dec. 20, 1833. Source
Mob returns to Big Blue area

Mormons return fire
 

Saturday night, November 2, the Mob commenced their ravages again above Big Blue. And after they had fired five or six guns upon the Mormons without effect, the Mormons fired upon them, and one of the Mob screamed, "O my God! I am shot." The Mob then dispersed in much confusion, taking their wounded companion along with them >.

 

Saturday our people left their dwellings, and took their most valuable articles of furniture, clothing, &c., that they might be better prepared for self-defence. Night came on, and the mob came along with it, and commenced their ravages again above the Blue, and after they had fired five or six guns upon our people without effect, our people fired upon them, and one of their number screamed, "O my God! I am shot!" The mob then dispersed in much confusion, taking their wounded companion along with them,who was shot through the thigh.

   
Mob of 200–300 in Independence  

On Monday last, the Mob collected again in the town of Independence, to the number of two or three hundred, well armed. They called it, "calling out the militia!" probably for the purpose of lessening the magnitude of their crime in the eyes of [the] community.

On Monday last the mob collected again, in the town of Independence, to the number of two or three hundred, well armed; they called it "Calling Out The Militia." They undoubtedly thought that the above appelation would sound better than its real and legitimate name, which is Mob, and if they could lessen the magnitude of their crime in the eyes of the community by so doing,—they, no doubt, would be highly gratified. But this cunning plot to deceive, covers their iniquity no more than the fig leaves covered our first parents in the garden from the piercing eye of Jehovah .

  Monday: November 4
Mob returns to Big Blue area, take heavy casualties  

At night a part of them went above Big Blue, but were met by a party of the Mormons who were well armed, and they poured a deadly fire upon them; two or three of the Mob fell dead, and a number mortally wounded. Among the former, was Hugh L. Breazeal, Attorney at Law >.

 

At night a part of the number that had collected in town, went above Blue, to drive our people away, and destroy our property; but were met by a party of our people, and being prepared, they poured a deadly fire upon them. Two or three of their number fell dead, and a number mortally wounded. Among the former, was Hugh L. Breazeal, Att'y at Law.

  Rev. B. Pixley says the number who went was "said to be eleven in number, ambushed by fifty or sixty Mormons about sunset. "Religious Warfare," Christian Register (Boston), Dec. 21, 1833 (reprint). Source
    Tuesday morning there were a number of the Mob missing that could not be accounted for >.—   Tuesday morning, there was a number of the mob missing and could not be accounted for, I was told.—   Tuesday: November 5
Hicks killed

Cannon used
 

[I] Left Independence and came to Liberty Landing on board the boat, where we stopped to take in freight, and while we were there, (Wednesday 11 o'clock, A. M.) a Messenger rode up, saying that he had just came from the seat of war, and that the night before, another battle had been fought, in which Mr. Hicks, Attorney at Law, fell, having three balls and some buck shot, through his body, and about twenty more of the Mob. Mr. Hicks was one of the heads of the mob. The cannonading in the last engagement, was heard on board the boat very distinctly >.

I left Independence and came down the river to Liberty landing where we stopped to take in freight; and while we were there, (Wednesday 11 o'clock, A. M.) a messenger rode up, saying that he had just came from the seat of war, and that the night before, another battle had been fought, in which Mr. Hicks, Att'y at Law, fell, having three balls and some buck shot, through his body; and about twenty more of the mob, shared a similar fate. Mr. H. was one of the heads of the mob. Report says also that one or two of our men were killed and as many wounded. The cannonading in the last engagement was heard on board the boat very distinctly.

  night before: November 5.

Wednesday: November 6
 

Of a part of the above, I was an eye witness, but things were in a state of great confusion at the time, and should there be an error in the above statement, I trust that you and the public will pardon a well-wisher to all mankind.—Yours in haste.

I was an eye witness to a part of the above statements; but things were in a state of great confusion at the time, and should there be an error in the above, I hope to find pardon in the eyes of a candid people. [Continued below.]

 
    ORSON HYDE.        
 

The above is a true statement as far as the particulars have come to us.

       
 

Y. GUNSOLES Captain.

       
 

N. MELVEN Clerk.

       
    [Continued below.]        
   

Conclusion of
Daily Missouri Republican article

 
Gilbert captures mobber

Justice refuses
One more item I will notice.—At the time Messrs G. & W.'s store was broken open, Mr. G. with a number of others, succeeded in taking the one who first broke open the door, and brought him forthwith before a magistrate to see if something could not be done with him; but the magistrate refused to do anything about it. ¶ Edward Partridge
Gilbert, Phelps charged

This was an unwise move of Mr. G.; but on seeing his property destroyed in that barbarous manner, and the agitation of mind which he was necessarily laboring under, he was led to do as he did. After they liberated the man, he took them with a warrant immediately for false imprisonment and put them in prison, viz: Mr. Gilbert, Phelps the printer, and one more; and as near as I can learn the mob was determined never to let them escape from prison alive.

 
In July governor refused to get involved I am one, who went to the Governor with a petition for assistance to obtain our rights, or redress of our wrongs and aggrievances received from the citizens of Jackson county, in July last. But as the circumstances then were, the Governor said he could do nothing, but advised us to take the regular steps of the law, which, at that time, was our only course, and this we attempted to do; but instead of peace being promoted by it, it increased their rage and led them to commit the horrid crimes named above.  
Laws not enforced I am satisfied that it is useless to undertake to enforce the laws in that county under the present circumstances, because there is no one to enforce them. Every officer, civil and military, with one or two exceptions, is either directly or indirectly engaged in the mob.  
Plea

Constitution

Persecution
Under these painful circumstances, what remains to be done? Must we be driven from our homes? Must we leave the soil for which we have paid our money? -- Most our women and children be turned out of doors with nothing but the clouded canopy to cover them and the perpetration of the above crimes escape unpunished? Or must we fight our enemies three to one, or lie down and die and our names be blotted out from among men? Let the Executive of our State and nation consider these questions; and if they will answer them in the negative, let them signify it by raising the helping hand. Again, I ask in behalf of my brethren: Will not the Governor or President lend a helping hand in this deadly calamity? Shall the crisis of the innocent and distressed, salute the ears of the Executive in vain? God forbid! For while the constitution of the United States, which was given by the inspiration of Almighty God through the instrumentality of our fathers, shall stand, I trust that those who are honored with the Executive, will see that the laws are magnified and made honorable.— Perhaps some of my friends, on reading this letter, will be ready to ask me what I think of my religion now: I have no reply, other than this: Paul said, "He that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution."  
Please publish Editors throughout the United States, are requested to publish this letter, if they are willing to confer a favour upon those who are journeying through much tribulation  
  I am, sirs, though a stranger, your friend and humble servant.  
  ORSAN HYDE.  
    Conclusion of
Evening and Morning Star article
 
Astonished by M'Lelland's denials We were not a little astonished on reading the remarks of the Herald upon the above letter, and the credence given to Mr. M'Lelland's statement of the outrage. Mr. M. is represented in the Herald as being a man of the most SUPERLATIVE honor, and utterly denies there having any thing transpired derogatory to the character of the inhabitants of that county toward their neighbors, the "Mormons" as they call them. He says that no houses belonging to our society were demolished by the people of that place, and that no maltreatment was shown whatever. This must be too bare-faced to be believed by any candid unprejudiced man. The very admission that our people were leaving the county is sufficient to show, that without some extraordinary occurrence they would not thus leave their houses, their homes, their property and their possessions in this late season of the year. He says that there never had been but one skirmish, and then the "Mormons" were the assailants. Would this Mr. M. be glad to make the people of the United States believe that there had been no unlawful proceedings by the citizens of Jackson county?
 
Press destroyed This reminds us of a certain article published soon after the outrage commenced, which went considerably the rounds in the public prints, stating that the citizens of Jackson county very COOLLY and DELIBERATELY surrounded the office of "The Evening and the Morning Star," raised it to the foundation, SECURED the press, &c. and dispersed without doing any thing further, or offering abuse or violence to any man. When the fact was, the press was broken, and now lies in fragments opposite the ruins of the building, unless recently removed; the types and furniture of the office, scattered and destroyed;
Tarred and feathered two and, to add glory to their triumphant victory, they very COOLLY and DELIBERATELY seized two peaceable and inoffensive fellow-citizens, marched them up before the court house door, divested them of the more part of their wearing apparrel, and tarred and feathered them amid shouts of "Now call on your God to deliver you—pretty Jesus you worship," &c. ¶ Edward Partridge
Hyde's statement confirmed Mr. M. says, that the "Mormons" have suffered no maltreatment; that only one skirmish has ensued, and then the Mob only acted on the defensive; that the firing on their part did not commence until after the "Mormons" had fired upon them, and that they only went in order to hold a consultation with them concerning their afore stipulated agreement to leave the county. But this is so far from being correct, that we can say, that we have received several communications from the SEAT OF WAR, and all corroborate the statement of brother Hyde, Capt. Gunsoles and his Clerk, that the firing commenced on the part of the Mob.  
Those who agreed to leave were in Independence And farther, the individuals who entered into the stipulation to leave the county, were then in the town of Independence, or near there, and the said skirmish was some eight or ten miles west of that place.
Gilbert and Phelps in court

Had agreed to leave the county
And we are authentically informed, that when the intelligence of the battle reached Independence, Breazeal and Linville were killed, and others wounded, that Mr. Gilbert, Phelps, and others of the society, were then in the court house on a trial, where they were charged with an assault, or false imprisonment; > and the excitement was such, that with difficulty they escaped massacre from the hands of an inhuman and lawless populace; that in open court a pistol was presented to the breast of Mr. G. but providentially missed fire, and that no notice was taken of the transa ction. Mr. Gilbert, Phelps, and those individuals, or at least some of them, were those who agreed to leave the county, with whom Mr M. says, the Mob went to hold a consultation.
  [119] We are not surprised, that men who are guilty of so flagrant a violation of the Constitution and laws of our country, should seek to screen themselves from justice, by false coloring those acts which cannot be hid; but for the name of a man of SUPERLATIVE honor, whose verasity is unimpeachable, & his integrity unquestionable, the truth of whose assertion is vouched for by the Editors of the Herald, to come before the public, we leave them to judge of the correctness of the statements of an eye witness, corroborated by the Capt. and Clerk of the S. B. Charleston, believing that no argument from us is needed, to show the design of such representations, as made by Mr. M.
One rioter caught

Judge won't act

Gilbert charged with assault
It may be proper to say, that Mr G. and others were engaged in apprehending the individual who broke down the door of Mr. G. & Co.'s store, when their goods were taken out and scattered through the streets; but the Justice refusing to take any notice of the person, or act, he was accordingly permitted in turn to bring those individuals who apprehended him, before a court, where they were, when the report came of the above mentioned skirmish < >.
Introduction to extracts

Exaggeration expected

Mormons have been expelled
We give a few extracts from certain letters showing the conduct of the Mob, since the destruction of the printing office. In an outrage of this magnitude, and the great excitement unavoidably raised in the minds of the sufferers, it can not but be expected, that exagerated reports will be put in circulation, and frequent misrepresentations made by both parties, by giving too much credence to rumors; but we can draw a decided conclusion from what information we have received, that the society have been forced from their own dwellings, and compelled to seek an asylum among strangers without means to procure the common necessaries of life.
  Extract of a letter dated, "Independence, October 30, 1833.
Wednesday
Sunday Mormons declare they will defend Dear brethren,—Through the mercy and aid of our heavenly Father we are yet alive; and we are very thankful for such a blessing. Since I last wrote we have been through a scene. We declared publicly a week a go last Sunday that we as a people should defend our lands and houses.
week a go last Sunday: October 20
Monday mob leaders meet

Mormon orders: don't be aggressors
On Monday the mob, or at least some of the leaders began to move; strict orders were given with us not to be the aggressors—but to warn them not to come upon us, &c. and as court was to set on Monday, it was noised abroad that the leaders of the mob would be called upon to bind themselves to keep the peace. It was a solemn looking time. Monday: October 28
  The mob had lost no time in sending rumors, and counselling; above fifty of them met on Saturday and voted to a hand to move the "mormons:"—They counselled and rode all day of Sunday. The great Monday came, but fewer people were seldom seen at a Circuit Court—No mob, but great threats. Saturday: October 26
More Mormons arrive A number of families arrived last week from Ohio, Indianna, and Missouri; some of whom were attacked by the leaders of the mob, but I believe they received no injury. Yours &c." October 20–26
Defensive action only By the foregoing it can be seen, that our society were cautious not to act only in the defensive, which they were justified in doing. We give an extract of another communication, dated:
November 6, 1833.
Thursday 10–12 homes destroyed, men whipped, beaten Dear brethren,—Since I last wrote we have had horrible times. When I returned from—behold the enemy had suddenly come upon our brethren above Blue, and had thrown down 10 or 12 houses < >, and nearly whipped some to death, among whom was H. Page <.—This was done on Thursday night.—

Thursday, October 31

H. Page: Hiram Page

Tuesday mob in Independence On Tuesday [sic] night they commenced in Independence; broke all the windows of the brethren's houses in; broke open the doors of bro. Gilbert's store, strewed the goods in the streets <.

Tuesday is erroneous. The Tuesday after Thursday, October 31 is November 5. Orson Hyde letter dates this attack on Friday, November 1.

Saturday beat men at Blue Saturday night they fell upon the brethren at the Blue—nearly beat one to death! but one of Manship's sons was dangerously wounded with a rifle ball, they fled <. November 2
Monday battle at Blue On Monday about sun set a regular action was fought above Blue; we had 4 wounded—They had 5 wounded and killed; among the latter were Mr. Breazeal and Mr. Linville < >. November 4
Tuesday mob of 300

Mormons agree to move
From Friday till Tuesday after noon our brethren were under arms. On Tuesday the mob had about three hundred collected—Before any blood was shed we agreed to go away immediately <. Thursday, October 31 to Tuesday, November 5
Flee in all directions It is a horrid time, men, women and children are fleeing, or preparing to, in all directions, almost—We mean to try to settle in Van Buren county if possible, God only knows our lot.
Yours &c.
November 7, 1833.
Battle at Blue Since I wrote yesterday morning, another horrid scene has transpired.—After our people agreed to leave the county and were dispersed from each other in a measure, a party of the mob went to the Blue, and began to whip, and, as I heard late last night, murder!
 
North to Clay county

Brethren hiding
All hopes of going to the south was given up last night, when it was resolved that we should be driven forthwith into Clay county. The brethren have been driven into the woods, and God only knows what will become of them. Women and children are flocking to Everett's and Hancock's Ferry. Our families will have to take the ground for a floor to-night if they get down in season to cross the Missouri. Yours in affliction, &c.
November 14, 1833.
Members scattered Since I last wrote, our brethren have been moving in every direction. It is impossible to say where many of them are.—
Lacking food The situation of many is critical having nothing to buy food with, and having raised none the passed season.
Crops, property destroyed Great destruction is said to be making with the property left—such as corn, potatoes, household furniture, &c.
Hated of all men The Savior said, Blessed are ye when ye are hated of all men for my name's sake—and I think we have come to that.
Can't describe It is impossible to give you the information which requires a personal interview.
Need food, clothing

Desperate
Now is the hour that tries our souls; yea, the souls of the saints: we want victuals and clothes, and we mean to be saved, even if we die—for life with the present prospect before us, is not very desirable! I shall give more general information in my next if I can obtain it. terms: saints
In great tribulation,
Yours, &c."
Oliver's commentary

Some killed
Amid the confusion unavoidably arising in calamities of this magnitude, as we previously remarked, it can not but be expected that many rumors will be afloat having very little foundation. But from the previous quotations it is plain to draw a conclusion, that lives have been sacrificed, some in attempting to gratify a spirit of outlaw, and persecution; and others in the defence of helpless innocence. Some statements were only drawn from report by the writer, and others from actual knowledge.
Houses destroyed

Refute M'Lelland
The fact, that houses were thrown down by the Mob, is authentically furnished us by verbal report, as well as by the extracts given. That the "Mormons suffered no maltreatment" from the Mob, is an assertion as difficult to substantiate, as to authentically prove that no dwellings were thrown down, no doors broken open, no merchandise thrown about the streets, neither a printing office leveled with the ground. And for any citizen of Jackson county to say, that no occurrence of this kind has transpired, we leave our friends to judge, whether he could be well informed in the common transactions of his own county; or whether he endeavored in any degree to misrepresent, thinking to turn the public mind from a just feeling of censure against the perpetration of a crime of this magnitude, that the actors might escape justice.
Number of killed exaggerated From the following extract we can draw something of an estimate of the number killed, up to the time when it was written. We have heard various accounts of the number slain on both sides, and these reports have frequently been exagerated. The account of the number killed in the last engagement, as inserted in the Herald, written by brother Hyde, was incorrect, and it will be seen from the article that it was only a report; consequently, he was not accountable for its correctness.
Outrage (1) Errata
Innocents driven

Lack necessities
But the calm deliberate spirit by which the following appears to have been indited, is sufficient to show that excitement did not agitate the mind of the author; though under such paineful circumstances it is to be expected, that a man of feeling, on the reflection, that innocent women and children, were driven from their peaceable homes by a lawless mob, and compelled to lodge upon the cold earth, under the open canopy, without having the means or power to administer to them in their necessities, would be required to call every power and faculty of the intellect into requisition, to keep it from burning with unjust indignation[.]
[120] November 17, 1833.
Mob destroys 10 homes

Dear brethren—I will give you a few particulars of our proceedings, and also of the rioters, as I have been able to collect them. Some forty or fifty of them in one night, demolished or unroofed ten houses of ours, above Blue <.
2 rioters captured They came out again in the night and two of their number were taken, and that stopped their career that night.
One of mob injured Again they fell upon the society at the Blue, and commenced firing upon them, which was returned by the society, and one of their men was shot through the thigh.
Another battle Again, they came out against the society above the Blue, a battle ensued in which some two or three of their men were killed <, and a number wounded and shortly died, and others were wounded but are like to recover.
Dibble likely to die, Barber killed, others wounded Brother [Philo] Dibble was shot through the bowels and his case is considered doubtful; another by the name of Barber was wounded and has since died; five or six more were wounded but not mortally.
One rioter captured Another party had fallen upon the brethren in Independence and did considerable damage. We went against them, and took one man while in the act of breaking open the store.
Judges won't do anything

Countersuit
We had him before the magistrate but he refused to do any thing with him at that time. He then sued bro. G., myself and others for an assault; we were prisoners in the court house for trial when the news came of the battle above Blue <.

bro. G.: Sidney Gilbert

myself: W. W. Phelps

Mob tries to kill Gilbert and Phelps The house being full they rushed upon us to kill us, but through the mercy of God we were preserved and not hurt:  
County anti-Mormon

Agree to leave
we saw plainly that the whole county were enraged, and preparing for a general massacre the next day. We then thought it wisdom to stop the shedding of more blood; and by agreeing to leave immediately we saved many lives; in this we feel justified.
Scattered But we are literally in a scattered, miserable condition, not knowing what we shall be called to pass through next.
Most faithful, some deny the faith The brethren, generally bare it patiently and feel cheerful, trusting in God, and but few deny the faith—I will write more particulars hereafter, Yours, &c."
   
Outrage Errata
Expulsion from Jackson County
Jackson County
Missouri




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