Mormon History 1830-1844

Joseph
     
Bios
     
Beliefs & Practices
     
Chron
     
NY
     
Ohio
     
Missouri
     
Missions
     
Sources
     

Apostles
Tradition holds that although Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer were charged with "searching out the Twelve" in June 1829 (¶ D&C 18:37), they didn't get around to the task until February 1835 and that earlier usages of apostle denote messenger, not an office. However, this may be an after-the-fact interpretation. Though the evidence is scanty, there may be some reason to believe that twelve apostles were chosen around the time that the church was organized in 1830. Below are texts that should be taken into consideration.
June 1–14, 1829 Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer  
Oliver and David And now Oliver, I speak unto you, and also unto David, by the way of commandment: For behold I command all men every where to repent, and I speak unto you, even as unto Paul mine apostle, for you are called even with that same calling with which he was called. ¶ BC 15:10–11 // D&C 18:9.

April 19, 1830   Hyrum Smith    
Hyrum Mr. Editor—
Please advice Hyrum Smith, and some of his ill-bred associates, not to be so impertinent, when decent folks denounce the imposition of the "GOLD BIBLE." The anathemas of such ignorant wretches, although not feared, are not quite so well relished by some people— Apostles should keep cool.
Palmyra Reflector, Apr. 19, 1830. Source

June 1, 1830   Oliver Cowdery    
Oliver The apostle to the NEPHITES (Cowdery) has started for the EAST, on board a boat with a load of "Gold bibles," under a command, (as he says) to declare the truth (according to JO SMITH,) "in all the principal cities in the Union." Palmyra Reflector. Link to source at
Uncle Dale's Readings in Early Mormon History website.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">UDR.

[June 9], 1830   Apostle an elder    
Oliver

Apostle is an elder

Duties of apostles
… for behold I command all men every where to repent & I speak unto you [Oliver] even as unto Paul mine apostle for ye are called even with that same calling with which he was called. … ¶ Articles and Covenants
An apostle is an elder, and it is his calling to baptize and to ordain other elders, priests, teachers and deacons, and to administer the flesh and blood of Christ according to the scriptures, and to teach, expound, and exhort, and to baptize and watch over the church, and to confirm the church by the laying on of hands and the giving of the Holy Ghost, and to take the lead of all meetings, &c. ¶ Articles and Covenants

June 1829   Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer    
Oliver and David 10 And now Oliver, I speak unto you, and also unto David, by the way of commandment: BC 15:10–11., 35. Cf. D&C 18:9, 32.
11 For behold I command all men everywhere to repent, and I speak unto you, even as unto Paul mine apostle, for you are called even with that same calling with which he was called,

September 1830   Oliver Cowdery    
    About the first of September, A.D. 1830, I was baptized by the hand of an Apostle named Oliver Cowdery.   ¶ Parley P. Pratt (h)
   
   
1830   Sidney Rigdon, Campbellite apostle    
    … rumors had come from Ohio [to Pomfret, New York] of the spread of what was called "Campbellism," a new sect, of which Sidney Rigdon was then the Chief Apostle …  
<i>My Life&#39;s Review: Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Johnson</i>, edited by the Johnson Family Organization &#40;Provo: Grandin Book Company, 1997&#41;. Written 1884&#45;1896 &#40;p. 280, 356&#41;.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">B. F. Johnson life, 5.
   
   
June 22, 1830   [Martin Harris] apostle    
Martin Harris the Gold Bible apostle It has been reported that one if the "Gold Bible" witnesses has been in the habit of whipping and otherwise mal-treating his wife for the sole purpose of making her a proselyte to the faith according to JO SMITH. Palmyra Reflector, June 22, 1830. Link to source at
Uncle Dale&#39;s Readings in Early Mormon History website.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">UDR.   We have been informed that a "Gold Bible" apostle lately undertook to anathematise an infidel!!!    
  November 25, 1830   Twelve apostles sent         [Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery] have therefore sent out twelve Apostles to promulgate its doctrines, several of whom are in this vicinity expounding its mysteries …   its: the Book of Mormon
Cleaveland Herald, Nov. 25, 1830. Link to source at Uncle Dale&#39;s Readings in Early Mormon History website.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">UDR.
   
    December 2, 1830   Orson Pratt ordained apostle     Orson Pratt [Joseph and John Whitmer to Colesville members]: … the Lord hath called, chosen, ordained, sanctified and sent unto you another Servant and apostle separated unto his gospel through Jesus Christ …[20] … even our beloved brother Orson Pratt (h1), the bearer of these lines … Copy of letter in Newel Knight journal [1846] qtd. in <i>Early Mormon Documents</i>, compiled and edited by Dan Vogel. 4 vols. &#40;Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002&#41;.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Early documents 1:20–21.  
  April 19, 1831   Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery ordained apostles     Articles and Covenants reference Painesville Telegraph publishes a letter from Martin Harris that includes the earliest published version of the Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ. Joseph and Oliver are each "called of God and ordained an apostle of Jesus Christ, an elder of the church." <I>Painesville Telegraph</I>')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">PT, April 19, 1831 Source

¶ Articles and Covenants

May 24, 1831   Heman Basset declares it a hoax     Pretended commission from clouds   Backing out.—One of the Mormon apostles, named Basset, a copy of whose commission we published some weeks since, which he pretended he obtained from the clouds, with the seal of God, has recently abandoned the Bible speculation, and declares it all to be a miserable hoax.   Is "it" Mormonism or the commission?

<I>Painesville Telegraph</I>')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">PT, May 24, 1831. Source

¶ Levi Hancock, ¶ Oliver Cowdery and the Aerial Commissions of 1831

  September 22, 1831 Jared Carter   Jared "received the authority of an apostle" prior to departing on mission. Jared Carter diary. Microfilm of holograph, Church Archives, MS 1441.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Jared Carter diary, 35.
  October 26, 1831   Go from Zion         Twelve are to be "ordained & sent forth from the Land of Zion."   ¶ Minutes of Oct. 25–26, 1831    
    November 24, 1831   Ziba Peterson and Oliver Cowdery     Ziba Peterson deprived of apostleship … a secret respecting Oliver, which placed his conduct on a parallel with Ziba's; for which Ziba [Peterson] was deprived of his Elder and Apostleship: "Let that which was bestowed upon Ziba be taken from him, and let him stand as a member in the church, and let him labor with his own hands with the brethren." And thus by commandment, poor Ziba, one of the twelve Apostles, is thrust down; while Oliver the scribe, also an Apostle, who had been guilty of similar conduct, is set on high, to prepare work for the press; and no commandment touches him, only to exalt him higher. ¶ Ezra Booth Letters (7)

Quinn points out that at the first conference of the church, Ziba was "one of the church's twelve officers (limited to seven elders, three priests, and two teachers) at the time." Without citing a source, he also reports that "the elders at this conference received written licenses which designated them as 'apostles.'" <i>Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power<i>, D. Michael Quinn &#40;Salt Lake City: Signature Books in association with Smith Research Associates, 1994&#41;.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Origins, 569.
 
September 22 and 23, 1832   God's high priests, Lord's friends     Apostles are God's high priests, friends … as I said unto mine apostles, even so I say unto you, for you are mine apostles, even God's high priests; ye are they whom my Father hath given me; ye are my friends; D&C 84:63  
  December 28, 1835 Seventy     on this day the council of the seventy meet to render an account of their travels and ministry, since they were ordained to that apostleship SHOWREF=js3536], 91; identical wording in 1834&#45;1836 history in JS &#34;large journal&#34; labeled A&#45;1 &#40;1&#45;194 numbered from the front of the book&#41;. Contents: Genealogy of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery; blank pages for Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams genealogy; transcript of Oliver Cowdery&#39;s history of the church published in the <i>Messenger and Advocate</i> &#40;1834&#45;1835&#41; &#40;Frederick G. Williams hand&#41;; journal&#45;type entries for September 22, 1834 to January 11, 1836 in third person &#40;mostly Warren Parrish hand&#41;. Writing began October 29, 1835 and ended January 17, 1836. <i>Selected Collections</i> 1:1 // <i>Papers of Joseph Smith</i> 1:15&#45;209 . Original, Church Archives, CR 100 102, Volume 1.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">1834ยข1836 history, 165.    
Twelve Apostles
New York Offices
Ohio Offices
Priesthood




Home | Joseph | Bios | Beliefs & Practices | Chron | NY | Ohio | Missouri | Missions | Sources | Top

Dale R. Broadhurst | Far West | JS Writings | BYU Mormon Studies | More
Dialogue | JWHA | LDS Church | MHA | Signature Books | Sunstone

Saints Without Halos has no official connection with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
© 2001-2007 Saints Without Halos. All rights reserved.