Mormon History 1830-1844

History of Willard Richards (1804–1854)
Family, Presbyterian upbringing, anxiety during the 1819 revival parallels Joseph Smith's in some respects, teaches school, studies medicine. Baptized in December 31, 1836 and confirmed the next day. Mission to the east with Brigham. Kirtland. Accompanies Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde and Joseph Fielding on the first mission to England. Mission experiences 1836–1840. Marriage to Jennetta Richards §, birth and death of first child §. Ordained an apostle. Edits Millennial Star. Returns to Nauvoo, edits Times and Seasons. Clerks for Joseph Smith, accompanies him to Carthage.
This sketch is part of the series, "History of Brigham Young," published in the Millennial Star, 1863–1865. It was originally published in the Deseret News in 1858. The first and last parts are written from the view point of Brigham Young, but probably edited by George Q. Cannnon. Richards' diary entries are in blue.
<i>Millennial Star</i>
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Parents, birth

Willard Richards was the sixth son of Joseph and Rhoda, born in Hopkinton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, June 24, 1804.  
  His father, Joseph, was born in Middlesex County, March 17, 1762.    
  His mother, Rhoda, the daughter of Phinehas and Susannah Howe, was born July 8, 1762.
  They were married December 20, 1781, and had eleven children, viz.,—    
Siblings Joseph b. September 29, 1782
Rhoda b. August 8, 1784
Susan b. August 13, 1786 d. April 11, 1830
Phinehas b. November 15, 1788
Levi b. December 7, 1790 d. June 17, 1795
Nancy b. November 22, 1792
Hepsy b. July 28, 1795 d. Sept. 30, 1838
Betsy b. May 17, 1797 d. December 12, 1803
Levi b. April 14, 1799
William b. May 2, 1801
Willard b. June 24, 1804
Father, Army of the Republic

Poor health
His father served in the army of the Republic in the war of Independence. While in the army he had mercurial ointment administered to him by the surgeon to cure an eruption of the skin, and taking cold, his health was impaired during life.    

He possessed 160 acres of land, and would be considered in medium circumstances as a New England farmer. He and his wife were professors of religion, and belonged to the Congregational Church in Hopkinton; had their children sprinkled, catechized and educated according to the prescribed forms of the Presbyterian directory.    
Parents' deaths Rhoda, Willard's mother, died February 14, 1838. Joseph, his father, died March 29, 1840.    
Childhood accidents Willard fell from the scaffold of a barn on his head, when he was four years old, and received a severe hurt. Soon after he fell into a stream of water, and would have been drowned had not his brother Levi providentially rescued him.    
Move to Richmond When he was about nine years old, he removed with his father and family to Richmond, Berkshire County.    
Letter to a minister The following extract from a letter to a Christian minister serves to show the state of feeling incidental to a conviction and conversion under the administration of the Presbyterian and other sectarian orders of priestcraft,—ministers ignorant, blind, distracted, without authority or knowledge from God, distract others by stirring up the imagination, exciting unnecessary fears and torture of mind and lead them blindly to the ditch:    

[119] As it has pleased God in his providence to separate us at present, at some distance from each other, so that I cannot have the privilege of verbal conversation with you, I deem it not improper to hold some correspondence by means of pen and paper.


I address you, sir, as one whom I consider a friend, who I think will be willing to give advice and instruction to one who sincerely wishes it. Wishing to reveal the secrets of my heart to some friend from whom I may receive advice, I will attempt to do the same to you, being confident that you will keep whatsoever I may commit to you until you see or hear from me.


In taking a view of my past life, I will go no further back than the spring of eighteen hundred and nineteen, although I might mention feelings which I had a year before that, were they not too hard to name.



Near the commencement of the revival of nineteen my mind became impressed with the importance of the things then called in question, and well had it been for me had I then listened to the calls of the gospel, forsaken all, and followed Christ.

Convicted of his sins


I was impressed with a sense of my sins; I attended meeting after meeting, but all, I fear, to no purpose until my feelings rose to such a height, that I lost all hopes of mercy, or of ever obtaining the one thing needful. Despair seized my whole soul; I concluded that I had sinned until it was too late for me to be pardoned.

Stops attending meetings

Wishes for death

I forsook all meetings, thinking that my destruction was sure, and that all the calls of mercy would sink me deeper in everlasting misery. Night after night would I lay my head on my pillow, and close my eyes in sleep, wishing that I might never more open them in that world in which I should treasure up wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God.

Weeks of terror

State of insensibility

Sins unpardonable

Thus I was for a number of weeks with my feelings wrought up to the summit of terror and despair indescribable; I cared not what I did. Other books were as agreeable to me as the Bible, believing that all I read in that, and all the meetings I attended and all other privileges would sink me deeper in the labyrinth of woe. My feelings were wrought up to the highest pitch of despair, and I was ready to curse the day in which I was born, if I did not in my heart really do it. But they were of short duration for this time, for in a few moments I relapsed into a state of stupidity and insensibility and concluded my case was hopeless. I wanted to pray, but I thought it would be mockery as my sins were unpardonable.

Clergy: guilty!

How easy it would have been for Peter, or any other man with authority from God, to have said, "Willard, repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, which shall lead you into all truth;" but instead of such a comforting declaration saluting his ears from a servant of God, he was left to believe he had committed the unpardonable sin.

1820 teaches school He commenced teaching school in Chatham, Columbia County, New York, in November, 1820, and taught thirty scholars five months; he received a certificate from the inspectors of schools, Columbia County.    
  In 1821, he received the following:—
Teaching certificate

This certifies that the bearer, Mr. Willard Richards, is a young man of fair moral character, and as such he is recommended in the capacity of a teacher, wherever he may find employment.

E. W. Dwight, Pastor of the Church.
Richmond, October 30, 1821.

1821 November, 1821.—He commenced teaching school in Lanesborough, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and taught four months; average number of scholars, thirty. He received a good certificate from the board of examination at Lanesborough.    
1822   In December, 1822, he was recommended by the minister of Hinsdale, and taught a school of six classes.    
1823 April 6, 1823.—The inspectors of common schools in Nassau, Rensselaer County, New York, gave him a certificate. He commenced a school there in April and continued until August, having an average attendance of about forty scholars.    
Constant study He had constantly devoted his leisure time to the acquisition of knowledge.    
Scientific lectures throughout New england In February, 1827, he commenced lecturing on electricity and other scientific subjects, which he continued to do at intervals, for several years, throughout the New England States. There are numerous testimonials preserved in favor of his lectures from men of high standing in the literary world.    
Studies medicine For several years he devoted much of his time to the study of the healing art, and delivered many instructive lectures on that subject.    
Albert P. Rockwood request

Lectures on medicine

In 1835, at the request of Mr. Albert P. Rockwood, he went to Holliston, Massachusetts, and delivered lectures on the Botanic or Thompsonian practice of medicine, which created much excitement there and in the surrounding towns.  
<i>Latter Day Saints&#39; Messenger and Advocate<i>
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">MA 27 no. 8 (Mar. 4, 1865), 133–136.
Lives with Rockwood He removed to Holliston and practiced with success for one year, during which time he resided with Mr. Rockwood.    
Journal excerpts begin The following is from his journal:—    
1836 baptized by Brigham Young I was baptized at Kirtland by Elder Brigham Young, December 31, 1836.    
1837 confirmed by Reynolds Cahoon

Gift of tongues
January 8, 1837.—I partook of the sacrament, and was confirmed by Reynolds Cahoon. I received such a measure of the Spirit as to be sensible of the subject of a song of Zion, which was sung by Elder Lyman Sherman, in the gift of tongues, on the coming of Christ.    
Ordained an elder March 6.—I was ordained an elder by President Alvah Beeman.
  —8.—Visited some friends in Newburgh. I bore them a faithful testimony, and returned on the 11th.    
Blessed by Joseph and Sidney

Business mission with Brigham
—13.—Received the prayers of President Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, with the laying on of hands for the recovery of my health, and was set apart to accompany Elder Brigham Young on a special business mission to the east.    
To New York —14.—Left Kirtland with Elder Young, and travelled by stage to Buffalo, and from thence to Utica; stopped one day at Canandaigua; continued travelling day and night till we arrived at my father's in Berkshire County, Massachusetts; from thence proceeded by New Haven to New York.    
  April 2.—Attended meeting with Brother Fordham, at St. Paul's Church.
  Elijah Fordham
Providence, Boston

Preaches to Rockwood
—6.—Proceeded by way of Providence to Boston; arrived at Holliston on the 10th, and preached to Mr. A. P. Rockwood and family.    
Travels in Massachusetts —11.—Went to Hopkinton, Southboro' and Westboro'.    
  —12.—Went to Framingham, stayed at Uncle Nehemiah Howe's.    
  —13.—Brother Brigham Young baptized Uncle Nehemiah Howe and his wife, and Miss Milton, and confirmed them; we then proceeded to Lyne.   Lyne: Lynn
Back to New York —14.—I baptized Miss Towne, Boston, from whence I went round by Providence, New York, Rochester and Albany, back to Richmond.    
  —27.—Brother Brigham left me and started for Kirtland, and I remained during the month of May visiting my relatives and friends, bearing testimony of the Gospel to them.    
To Kirtland June 5.—I received a letter from Elijah Fordham, New York, on business, and on reading it felt a strong desire to start to Kirtland immediately; but, wishing to know the mind of the Spirit, I submitted the case to the Lord, praying that my head might be relieved from pain immediately, if it was the Lord's will I should start for Kirtland at daybreak, which prayer was answered.    
    I started for Kirtland, and arrived on the 11th; had a pleasant and happy interview with Brother Brigham and his dear family, from whom I have received many favors (the Lord reward them), and my brothers Phinehas and Levi, and sister Hepsy and others.    
Heber C. Kimball and Joseph Fielding set apart

Willard's desire
Evening, went with Brother Brigham to President Joseph Smith's; Presidents Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith and others were present. Elders Kimball and Hyde and Brother Joseph Fielding had been set apart to go on a mission to England, and President Smith was giving them counsel on the subject. I felt my heart burn within me, strongly desiring that I might be one of the number.   On the mission to England see
<i>Men with a Mission: The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the British Isles, 1837&#45;1841</i>, James B. Allen, Ronald K. Esplin, and David J. Whittaker &#40;Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992&#41;.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Men with a mission.   —12.—Met Elder Kimball in the street, when he said, "Elder Richards, I am now ready to fulfill my engagement with you. I start for England tomorrow, and you may go with me, so get ready;" but I saw no way to extricate myself or to procure means.
  ¶ Heber C. Kimball (h3). Willard set apart by Sidney and Hyrum I walked with Brother Fitch Brigham to President Hyrum's, and after closing my business, inquired if it was my privilege to take a foreign mission. He replied it was, if I wished it. With the approbation of the First Presidency I was set apart, Monday, p.m., 6 o'clock, to a mission to England, under the hands of Presidents Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith. Brother Brigham agreed to take charge of our business.
    Departure —13.—I bade my Kirtland friends farewell, and started for a foreign shore at 9 a.m., in company with Brothers Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde and Joseph Fielding. Several friends accompanied us to the lake shore, among them Sister Rhoda Greene, who gave me 25 cents—the Lord reward her.
  Rhoda is Brigham's sister and wife of John P. Green. In 1839 John would be appointed president of the New York City branch.   —19.—Elder Kimball accompanied me to Richmond, Massachusetts.     Massachusetts relatives —20.—We visited Uncle Leadbetter, Sisters Wealthy Richards and Nancy Pierson.     To New York —21.—11 a.m., I bade my dear parents and friends farewell, and went to Albany.     Missionaries —22.—Left in the steamer Rochester, and arrived at New York at 5 p.m. Found Elders Hyde, Goodson and Russell, and Brothers Snyder and Fielding. They felt somewhat disappointed at our late arrival, by which we lost the chance of a passage in the ship United States.   John Goodson, Russell, John Snyder, and Joseph Fielding were all from the Toronto area, converted by Parley P. Pratt in 1836.   —23.—Engaged passage in the ship Garrick, in the second cabin.     33 years old —24.—This day I am thirty-three years old. Removed to Mr. Fordham's store, and took lodgings on the floor.       —29.—Went on board the ship Garrick, and hauled out of the dock.     Sail for England July 1.—7½ a.m., weighed anchor, and was out of sight of land at 2½ p.m.       —7.—On the banks of Newfoundland.       —12.—Strong wind—much rocking through the night.     Healed —16 (Sabbath).—Elder Hyde preached on the aft quarter deck. I heard the sermon, though severely afflicted with pain. Elders Kimball and Hyde laid their hands on me and prayed, then Elder Kimball took me by the hand and told me, in the name of Jesus Christ, to arise, which I immediately did, and found myself quite comfortable. Thanks be to the Lord for his healing power, which has been repeatedly manifested towards me.       —18.—At 4½ p.m., saw Cape Clear and entered St. George's Channel; just eighteen days since we lost sight of land below New York.       —19.—Looking east with cheerful hearts     Evil spirits seize Willard

Lord delivers
—20.—Awoke this morning in the utmost horror. It appeared to me that evil spirits or devils had fastened on every muscle of my body, pinching it so severely as to completely stop the circulation of the fluids, and Satan himself held me so close by the throat, that I was gasping for breath. Doubtless it would have gratified the prince of the power of the air if he could have strangled me, but the Lord suffered him not.     20-day voyage We anchored in the Mersey, took the small boat, and Elders Kimball, Hyde (h) and myself were the first who landed, after a prosperous voyage of twenty days from New York. We sought the first opportunity to unite our hearts in thanksgiving to our Heavenly Father for his protection.
    Preston —22.—We went to Preston.     James Fielding's congregation —23 (Sabbath).—Brother Heber opened the mission in Mr. James Fielding's meetinghouse, followed by Brother Hyde. In the evening Brother Goodson preached, and Brother Fielding bore testimony.   James Fielding (1793–1877) was Joseph Fielding's older brother. See Joseph Fielding Letter, 1837.   —26.—Elder Hyde preached in the evening, and I bore testimony.     Bedford —31.—Met in council. It was decided I should go to Bedford with Elder Goodson.       —August 1.—We went to Bedford.     Timothy Mathews' congregation —2.—We took lodgings at the Swan Inn, and called upon the Reverend Timothy Mathews. Brother Goodson preached in the evening in Mr. Mathews' chapel, also on the eves of the 3rd, 4th and 5th.   called upon: ¶ Robert Williams Meets Rev. Matthews.

Timothy R. Matthews (1795–1845) was curate of the combined Church of England–Methodist Church of Colmworth, Bedfordshire.

He was married to Ann Fielding, sister of Joseph, Mary, and Mercy Fielding, and he wrote the introduction to Ann's 1830 memoir of their mother, Rachel Fielding.
  —6 (Sabbath).—I attended Mr. Mathews' meeting.     —7 and 8.—We preached at a private house, which we hired for one week.     —9.—We called upon Mr. Mathews, and received a letter from Brother Hyde.   Baptisms begin —10.—Elder Goodson baptized five.     —12.—I baptized one.       —13.—Elder Goodson baptized one. In the afternoon administered the sacrament at Sister Braddock's.       —18.—Elder Goodson baptized Sister Page at 10 p.m. Quite a commotion prevailed on our way home, created by scoffers, but the most perfect composure reigned in the breasts of the disciples.     Kempson —20.—Preached at Kempson in the morning; afternoon, administered the sacrament at Sister Braddock's; evening, met at Kempson, Brother Goodson baptized two. I began to address the company, but was interrupted. On our return I was pelted with turnips, and etc., by the multitude; "the Lord forgive them."       —22.—Baptized William W. Smith.       —23.—Elder Goodson started for London.       —24.—I preached under a shed—disturbed by noise.       —27.—Preached at Kempson at 10½ a.m.; sacrament at Sister Braddock's at 2 p.m.; preached in the evening at Brother Gaunt's to a full house. I felt the influence of the Spirit of God upon me, so that I spoke with ease.       —28.—Preached under the shed again—disturbed by talking; visited Mrs. Thorpe, and answered fourteen questions.       September 3.—Preached in the eve.       —10.—Preached at Sister Brown's; no one present but the members of the Church, and in the evening at Brother Gaunt's.     Goodson should not go to Manchester —12.—Saw Brother Goodson on the stage at a quarter past one in the morning, on his way towards Manchester. I feel that it is not the will of God that he should go home at present.     Enoch's prophecy   Evening, met with the members of the Church at Sister Braddock's and gave some instructions on Enoch's prophecy.       I have reason to thank the Lord for potatoes and salt the past week; and this one, a loaf of bread and slice of meat from Sister Smith.       —13.—Preached at Kempson.     Blesses sick —14.—Kept this as a day of fasting; felt much strengthened and refreshed. Laid hands on Jane Braddock at noon, and by night she was well; also laid hands on Sisters Lavender and Brown; preached at Brother Smith's.
      —15.—Visited Mr. Thorpe. Preached in the evening at Sister Braddock's; laid hands on Brother Smith.       —17.—Preached in the morning at Brother Smith's; administered the sacrament in the afternoon; held meeting at 6 p.m.; we had four or five new hearers this day, and I felt somewhat encouraged.       —18.—Kept this as a day of fasting and prayer, that God would restore me to perfect health, give me humility, meekness, wisdom and the spirit of prophecy, and wholly prepare me for his will and service, and that he would make known to me his mind and will about the people of Bedford.       4 p.m., much refreshed by the Spirit. The Lord's name be praised forever. Preached at Brother Smith's.       —19.—Church came together at Sister Braddock's; I read them the account of the angel's appearance to Joseph.       —20.—Visited Brother Gaunt's; preached at Brother Smith's.     Fast day —21.—Kept this as a fast day; read Nehemiah and part of Ezekiel with much interest. I praise the Lord for much of his Spirit this p.m.       —24 (Sunday).—Preached morning and evening at Brother Smith's     Fasts —25.—Fasted.     Bedford —26.—Baptized William Smith at Bedford. Attended meeting at Sister Braddock's in the evening.    


—28.—Church fasted. A time of love and union, much of the Spirit of God felt by all; the Saints were truly encouraged.       —29.—Baptized Ellen Smith; meeting in the evening at Sister Braddock's.       October 1 (Sabbath).—Meeting in the morning at Brother Smith's.
    St. Paul's Having been moved by the Spirit for a week to attack Satan in his stronghold, I this day preached repentance and baptism to the congregation at St. Paul's Church, as they came out of the door at 1 o'clock.       Evening, met at Brother Smith's. Retired to rest with the assurance that God had accepted my labors.       —2.—Preached at Brother Smith's.     Fasts —3.—Fasted, much to the joy of my soul. Meeting at Sister Braddock's; baptized James Lee.     Fasts —5.—Fasted and prayed that I might be humble, get wisdom, and receive the gifts of prophecy and discerning of spirits, and know the mind of God concerning this people and myself.       Glory to God that he has given me so much of the influence of his Spirit; I have prayed to him that he will tell my counsellors Heber and Orson what his mind is concerning me and this people.       Evening, attended meeting.     Heber and Orson advise Willard —14.—I received a letter from Brothers Kimball and Hyde, giving me counsel and direction, in answer to my prayers. Brother Kimball advised me to go out into the country without purse or scrip, and preach to the surrounding villages. I immediately visited the regions round about, and preached the Word, conversing with the people incessantly.     Baptisms November 8.—I baptized William Pierce, William Emmons, Mrs. Elizabeth Emmons, Charlotte Cowne, Sarah Chrismas, and Mrs. Mary Charter, at Bassingbourn.     Hundreds protest —9.—Met at Mr. Ingra's, and confirmed those baptized. During the night my lodgings were surrounded by hundreds of persons, yelling and howling.         I preached in Codicot, Kempson, Wilmot Green, New Mile End, and several other places.     Baptisms December 14.—I baptized John Field and confirmed Mrs. Rebecca Cooper and Sophia Dunham at New Mile End.       —22.—Baptized two in Bedford.       —25.—The Church fasted, and I baptized James Lavender.       January 1, 1838.—I baptized Sarah Lavender.       —3.—I procured license to preach from the court of Quarter Sessions.       —7.—I baptized two.       —12.—I baptized one.       —20.—I baptized Alfred Braddock and Bevill Covington.       February 16.—I received a letter from my brethren in Preston, telling me to prepare for home in a month.     Bedford opposition I continued to labor against much opposition in Bedford, and the region round about, until the 7th of March, when I left about forty members in charge of Elder James Lavender, and returned to Preston and met Elder Hyde.       —10.—Elders Kimball and Fielding arrived in Preston from Ribchester.     Tours branches I took a tour through the branches and preached.     Jennetta Richards   While walking in Thornly, I plucked a snowdrop, far through the hedge, and carried it to James Mercer's, and hung it up in his kitchen; soon after Jennetta Richards came into the room, and I walked with her and Alice Parker to Ribchester, and attended meeting with Brothers Kimball and Hyde at Brother Clark's.   Heber C. Kimball baptized Jennetta on August 4, 1837. ¶ Heber C. Kimball (h4) Proposes While walking with these sisters I remarked, "Richards was a good name—I never want to change it, do you, Jennetta?"         "No, I do not," was her reply, and I think she never will.     Ordained high priest, counselor to Joseph Fielding April 1.—I attended a general conference of the churches in England, held at Preston, where I was ordained a high priest, and appointed first counsellor to Elder Fielding, who was appointed president of the mission. Elders Kimball, Hyde and Russell were returning to America.     Kimball, Hyde, Russell sail —12.—I went to 29, Union Street, Liverpool, with Brother Fielding, to visit with Elders Kimball, Orson Hyde (h) and Russell, who were detained at that port till the 20th, when they sailed for New York.     Richard Livesey's tract, first anti-Mormon tract in England When Elder Fielding and I returned to Longton, we found the Reverend Richard Livesey's tract against the Latter-day Saints; it was a condensation of lies and filth from the American papers, and was the first pamphlet published in England against the Work.   Livesey (1811–1857) returned to England in 1838, after seven years as a Methodist Episcopal minister in Massachusetts. <i>Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church, Volume One 1830&#45;1847</i>. Peter Crawley. Provo: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Crawley bibiography, 134–137, 399.

tract: An Exposure of Mormonism, Being a Statement of Facts Relating to the Self-Styled "Latter-day Saints," and the Origin of the Book of Mormon (Spaulding-Rigdon theory).
Sick, restored September 7.—I was very sick, and called on the elders, who administered to me, and I obtained relief, but grew worse than ever towards night, when the elders were called again; and after each had prayed several times, one of the elders prophesied that I should be relieved in one hour, and it was so. Truly it was a day of trial; I passed through all the bitterness of death. Sister Dawson was very kind.   Marries Jennetta —24.—I married Jennetta Richards, daughter of the Reverend John Richards, Independent minister at Walker Fold, Chaidgley, Lancashire. Most truly do I praise my Heavenly Father for his great kindness in providing me a partner according to his promise. I receive her from the Lord, and hold her at his disposal. I pray that he may bless us forever. Amen.     Accused of murder


Sister Alice Hodgin died at Preston, September 2, 1838, and it was such a wonderful thing for a Latter-day Saint to die in England, that Elder Richards was arraigned before the mayor's court at Preston, October 3rd, charged with "killing and slaying" the said Alice, with a "black stick," and etc., but was discharged without being permitted to make his defence, as soon as it was discovered the iniquity of his accusers was about to be made manifest.     1839 tours During the month of May 1839, I visited the brethren in Cumberland, and went to Carlisle; preached in several towns, and baptized one in Brampton.       In June I visited Manchester, Bolton, Salford, and the brethren in that region.     Son born July 17.—Jennetta bore to me a son; he was named Heber John.     Tours In August and September, I labored with Elders Clayton and J. Moon in Burslem, with some success. A small church was planted in Burnley by Elder Thomas Richardson, and many were added during the summer in the older branches, through the instrumentality of the local elders and priests, who were generally very faithful.     Jennetta moves home   In August, Jennetta took her son and went to Walker Fold, where she remained at her father's till November 7th.     Preston, Manchester I continued preaching in Preston and vicinity, also in Manchester and surrounding country.     Son contracts small pox December 17.—My son Heber John became sick; up to this date he had been a sound, healthy child, of a lovely disposition, never angry; on the 19th, many spots of the small pox broke out upon him.     Dies —28.—While the child was lying on Sister Susannah Liptrot's knees, and I was giving him a drink, he suddenly and unexpectedly died. He was buried at Elswick on the 30th.     1840 Apostles arrive January 13, 1840.—Elders Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor and Theodore Turley, arrived in Preston from America.     Preston conference —17.—I attended a general council in Preston. It was        


voted unanimously that Elders Woodruff and Turley go to the Potteries, Elders Taylor and Fielding to Liverpool, Elder Clark to Manchester with Elder Clayton, and Elder Richards go where the Spirit directs, and that the elders communicate with the presidency at Preston, once a month, for the time being, and Elder Richards write to Brothers Mulliner and Wright in Scotland.     Brigham's long illness April 9.—Having visited the surrounding branches, I returned to Preston at 4 p.m., and found Brothers Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball in my room. Brother Brigham was so reduced by his long sickness and fatigue with travelling, that I did not know him.     Ordained apostle —14.—With the Twelve in council at my room in Preston, I was ordained to the Apostleship by President Young, under the hands of the quorum present.       O my God, I ask thee to enable me to execute the duties of the office in righteousness unto the end, with my brethren the Twelve, that we may ever be of one heart and one mind in all things, and be saved with thee in thy kingdom, in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.     Decide to publish Millennial Star —16.—The Quorum of the Twelve met in council; decided on publishing the Millennial Star, hymn book, and etc.     Administer to Jennetta —18.—I accompanied Elder Kimball to Chaidgely and the branches surrounding Preston. We found Jennetta sick, and administered to her; she recovered.

Theodore Turley in prison
—25.—I arrived at Manchester, and proceeded to Burslem, where I found Elder Geo. A. Smith, with whom I preached at Hanley, Stoke-upon-Trent and Longton, and visited Elder Theodore Turley, who had been thrown into prison at Stafford, by the enemies of Truth, to prevent his preaching.         I proceeded to Worcester and met Elders B. Young and W. Woodruff at Dymock on the 30th.     Father's death May 15—I wrote a letter to the editor of the Star, informing him of the prosperity of the Work, in Herefordshire. I received a letter from America, by which I was informed of the death of my aged father.
  Star: The Evening and the Morning Star   June 14—I presided at the Bran Green and Gadfield Elm Conference; Elder Woodruff was present.
      —21—I attended a Conference at Stanly Hill; Elder Woodruff presided.
    Manchester conference —24.—1 went to Preston, in which neighborhood I labored until July 6th, when I attended the General Conference of the Church in Britain, held at Manchester.
      Here Elder Richards' private journal ceases.
    Edits Millennial Star Soon after the Conference Elder P. P. Pratt started for America, and Elder Richards assisted in editing the Millennial Star, and performing the general duties of presiding over the Mission.     Preston Sept. 20—He went to Preston and held a Conference, ordained five Elders, eleven Priests, eight Teachers and one Deacon, and returned to Manchester.     Manchester Oct. 6.—He attended a General Conference held in Manchester.
    Son born —11.—His wife, Jennetta, gave birth to a boy at 10:15 a.m.; he was named Heber John,
    Move to Manchester 1841.—In February he removed his family to 54, Regent Street, Manchester.
    Tour He visited and preached in Preston, Walkerfold, Clitheroe, Waddington, Mile End, Chatburn and Liverpool.
      In company with his brethren of the Twelve he attended Council meetings April 2nd, 3rd. and 5th, and on the 6th attended a General Conference of the churches in Britain.
    Liverpool to New York After Conference, with his brethren of the Twelve, his family and a company of Saints, he embarked at Liverpool, on board the ship Rochester, and sailed on the 21st, arriving in New York May 20th.     Massachusetts family June 1.—He went to Richmond, Massachusetts, with his family.
      July 1.—He left his family with his sisters at Richmond, and started for Nauvoo.
    Nauvoo Aug. 16.—He arrived in Nauvoo.     Assigned to Warsaw —31.—By vote of the Twelve Apostles, he was appointed to locate himself for a season at Warsaw, or vicinity, for the purpose of selling lots on the town plat of Warren, and to counsel the Saints.
      Sept. 7—He went to Warsaw, located himself, and sold three city lots.
    Nauvoo conference Oct. 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th.—He attended the Conference held in Nauvoo, and on the 7th attended a Council of the Quorum of the Twelve, when he was appointed, in company with brother Taylor and I, to draft an address to the eastern churches, as directed by the General Conference, which we wrote and published in the Times and Seasons on the 12th.
      —23rd and 24th. —He attended Conference at Lima, in company with brother Taylor and myself, when we had a profitable time.     City council —30.—He was elected a member of the Nauvoo City Council.       Nov. 14.—He was engaged with the Twelve writing an epistle to the Saints in Europe.
      —24—He and Elder Taylor went to Warsaw, and met Elder Joseph Fielding and a company of 204 Saints from England, and gave the company such counsel as their situation required.     Joseph instructs apostles —28.—He spent the day in company with the Prophet Joseph and the Twelve Apostles at my house; brother Joseph gave us good instruction.     Edits Times and Seasons —30.—He attended a Council of theTwelve when it was voted that Ebenezer Robison be solicited to give up the department of printing the Times and Seasons to Elder Willard Richards.
      Dec. 4th and 5th.—He attended a Conference at Ramus.     Moves to Nauvoo —11—He left Warsaw for Nauvoo, it being considered unnecessary for him to tarry there any longer.     Joseph's clerk, recorder —13.—He was appointed recorder for the Temple, private secretary to President Joseph Smith, and general [167] Church clerk. He commenced his labors in Joseph's new office, in the brick store, and by letter instructed the Saints at Warsaw to remove to Nauvoo.
    With Joseph to the end From the time he entered Joseph's office, with the exception of a short mission to the east after his family, he was with Joseph until the moment of his death, continually at work with his pen, while he was able to sit up.     City council recorder, court clerk He was recorder of the City Council and clerk of the Municipal Court. He kept Joseph Smith's private journals, making an entry only a few minutes previous to the awful tragedy which terminated the life of that good man.     At Carthage   And in the face of a hundred muskets, in the hands of infuriated mobbers he thrust his head out of the window to catch a glimpse of his dying President, and there remained gazing intently upon his mangled body until he was satisfied that the innocent spirit had fled.       His "Two Minutes in Jail" is one of the most thrilling documents ever written, and his parrying muskets with a walking-stick is one of the most unequal contests on record. God preserved him with the loss of a drop of without a "hole in his robe."       The burden that rested upon him from the death of Joseph until the return of the Twelve, served to develop the great energies of his character.            


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