Mormon History 1830-1844

History of Parley P. Pratt (1807–1857)
Early convert (1830), missionary to Kirtland, Missouri, Canada, the East, England, and Midwest. Member, original Quorum of the Twelve. Pamphleteer (esp. Voice of Warning) and first editor of the MIllennial Star.
This sketch is part of the series, "History of Brigham Young," published in the Millennial Star, 1863–1865. It was originally published in the Deseret News, May 19, 1858.

Born 1837 I am the third son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson, of Columbia county, New York. I was born April 12, 1807, in Burlington, Otsego co., New York.
<i>Millennial Star</i>
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">MS 26, no. 52 (Dec. 24, 1864): 822–825.
Childhood Of my childhood and youth I will say but little. I was raised to hard work on a farm, brought up in the strictest morals, was a believer in the Bible and Jesus Christ, received but a limited education in the common schools.
Marries Thankful I was married September 9, 1827, in Canaan, Columbia co., N.Y. My wife's name was Thankful, daughter of William and Thankful Halsey; she was born in New Lebanon, Columbia co., N.Y., March 18, 1797. Canaan is 5 miles south of New Lebanon.
Dies after birthing first child On the 25th of March, 1837, she gave birth to my firstborn, whose name is Parley, and died the same day >. This happened in Kirtland, Ohio. Thankful was 40.
Baptized by Oliver, early September 1830 About the first of September, A.D. 1830, I was baptized by the hand of an Apostle named Oliver Cowdery. This took place in Seneca Lake. I was confirmed the same day and ordained an Elder, at the house of Father Whitmer, Seneca county, N.Y. From that time forth I began to minister in the fulness of the Gospel.
Mission, baptizes Orson My first mission was in Columbia county, among my relatives and neighbors, where I baptized my brother Orson Pratt. Parley baptized Orson on Sept. 19, 1830. ¶ Orson Pratt (h1)
Meets Joseph in Manchester

Baptize 7
Returning to western New York the same autumn I saw for the first time Joseph Smith, the Prophet, at his father's house in Manchester; heard him preach, and preached in his house, at the close of which meeting we baptized seven persons. The seven include ¶ Ezra Thayer, Northrop Sweet and Oliver Cowdery's stepmother Keziah Cowdery.
<i>Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record</i>, H. Michael Marquardt and Wesley P. Walters &#40;Salt Lake City: Smith Research Associates, 1994&#41;.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Inventing, 135.
Lamanite missionaries called After this he inquired of the Lord, and received a revelation appointing me a mission to the west, in company with Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, Jun., and Ziba Peterson. We started this mission in October, 1830. D&C 32 (Oct. [17], 1830)

Covenants of the Lamanite Missionaries
1,500 mile mission

Preach to Indians in New York, Ohio
From Father Whitmer's in western New York, we travelled nearly fifteen hundred miles, mostly on foot, and arrived in Jackson county, Missouri, in the beginning of the year 1831, having preached the Gospel and left the Book of Mormon with the Cateraugus Indians near Buffalo, N.Y., and with the Wi-an-dots of Ohio.
Establish Kirtland church We also preached the Gospel and established the Church in Kirtland, Ohio, and the regions round about, consisting of several hundred members, among whom were Sidney Rigdon, Isaac Morley, John Murdock, Lyman Wight (h) (swh) and many others, whom we ordained Elders.
Preach to Delaware Indians in Kansas

Ordered out

Baptize a few in Jackson county
Passing the western bounds of Missouri amid the deep snows of January 1831, we entered what is now called Kansas, and bore the Book of Mormon and our testimony to the Delaware Indians, who received it joyfully. We were soon ordered out by Government agents, and threatened with the military. We then returned to Jackson county, Missouri, and preached the Gospel in several neighborhoods, baptizing a few.
Returns to Kirtland, March 1831 On the 14th February same year, I took leave of my fellow-laborers in Jackson county, and travelled, mostly on foot, to Kirtland, Ohio, nearly one [823] thousand miles, where I arrived some time in March.
Mission to Kirtland areas Here I met with President Joseph Smith, who inquired of the Lord and received commandment for me to preach the Gospel and visit the churches in the regions around, which I did until In April he preached with Orson in Rome and Thompson. ¶ Orson Pratt (h1), but before that, he, Sidney, and ¶ Leman Copley spent a weekend with the Shakers in North Union, Ohio. D&C 49, March [20–26], 1831.
Conference of June 1831

High Priesthood

Preach en route to Missouri
the Conference at Kirtland, held June 6, 1831, in which President Joseph Smith, by the word of God, ordained me, with many others, to the High Priesthood, and received a revelation for me and my brother Orson, and many others, to journey two and two, to the western bounds of Missouri, preaching and baptizing by the way.

Minutes of June [3–6], 1831; D&C 52

Ezra Booth, who became disillusioned with the church during the journey, provides the most detailed account of the journey to Missouri. Ezra Booth Letters (2)

Joseph's party left for Missouri on June 19, arrived July 14, and departed for Kirtland on August 9.

Parley and Orson left Kirtland "soon after" the revelation and arrived "in upper Missouri in September."

<i>Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt</i>, edited by Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor &#40;Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 2000&#41;. Originally published as <i>Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt</i>, edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. &#40;New York: Published for the Editor and Proprietor by Russell Brothers, 1874&#41;.
')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Parley P. Pratt, 82–84.

On the journey they held "about fifty meetings, and baptized five in Peru, Delaware county, Ohio, and six in Vermillion county, Illinois." ¶ Orson Pratt (h1) (Orson says he arrived in Jackson county at the end of August.)

I have found no minutes of February 1832 meetings in Zion, but Parley did attend the "general Conference" there in late January. Minutes of January 23, 1832.

Trip to Jackson county We started in June, performed this journey on foot, organized several churches by the way, and arrived in western Missouri in October of the same year. Remains, sick with ague From this time until February 1832, I was very sick of fever and ague, during which I tarried with the churches there. Healed

Leave for Kirtland, February 1832
About the middle of February I attended Conference in Jackson co., over which Bishop Edward Partridge presided. Here I was healed by the laying on of bands, and the next day started my return mission in company with John Murdock and others. Reach Kirtland, May 1832 After a tedious a journey of a thousand miles, we arrived in Kirtland, Ohio, in May 1832, having preached by the way with some success. Mission to Pittsburgh

Move to Jackson county
After a short mission to Pittsburgh and back, on foot, distance 130 miles, I removed with my wife to Jackson county, Missouri, where I settled, opened a farm, and built a log cabin. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is 123 mi. SE of Kirtland; Pittsburgh Junction, Ohio is 129 mi. S of Kirtland.

Parley baptized Noah Packard in Parkman, Geauga County, Ohio, June [1–5], 1832 and Hyrum Smith confirmed him. ¶ Noah Packard
Mission to Missouri, Illinois with William E. McLellin The next winter, in company with Elder William E. McLellin, I performed a mission on foot through Missouri and into Green county, Illinois, where we preached with much success; distance about six hundred miles in going and returning. Original: W. E. McLellin School of Elders in Zion About the 1st of June I returned home, devoted my time among the churches and in presiding over a school of Elders in Zion, and in laboring with my hands. 1833 driven from Jackson to Clay county In the autumn of 1833 I was driven out of Jackson county, with the rest of the Church, at the loss of my home. I took refuge in Clay county, where I obtained a living by day-labor, jobbing, &c. 1834 to Kirtland for help (3 weeks) On the 1st of February, 1834, being sent by a General Conference, held in Clay county, I started in connection with Elder Lyman Wight (h) (swh), on horseback, rode one thousand miles, and arrived in Kirtland in March. No minutes of this conference are known. "… a general Conference was held at my house, in which it was decided that two of the Elders should be sent to Ohio, in order to counsel with President Smith …" Parley and Lyman volunteer. "I was at this time entirely destitute of proper clothing for the journey; and I had neither horse, saddle, bridle, money [132] nor provisions to take with me; or to leave with my wife, who lay sick and helpless most of the time." <i>Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt</i>, edited by Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor &#40;Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 2000&#41;. Originally published as <i>Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt</i>, edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. &#40;New York: Published for the Editor and Proprietor by Russell Brothers, 1874&#41;.')" onmouseout="kill()" target="_blank" class="ref">Parley P. Pratt, 131–132.

Minutes of February 24, 1834.
Raise volunteers for Zion's Camp President Joseph Smith inquired of the Lord, and by revelation our mission was still extended eastward in connection with others. D&C 103:30 (Feb. 24, 1834) To New York with Joseph

Visits churches
President Joseph Smith and myself journeyed together as far as Genesee county, New York, where we held Conference, after which we separated and I still continued eastward, visiting the churches in northern New York, and my friends in Columbia county. Original: Genessee (a common spelling) Return to Kirtland I again arrived in Kirtland in the latter part of April. Zion's Camp On the 1st of May 1834, I started with President Smith and company for Upper Missouri, where we arrived in July. In this journey I had travelled by land near four thousand miles. From this till October I spent the time in laboring with
my hands. Heber's Zion's Camp (1) Moves back to Ohio On the 8th of October, in compliance with a revelation through the Prophet Joseph, I started with my wife for Kirtland, Ohio. After journeying near one thousand miles with a horse-team, we stopped for the winter at New Portage, within fifty miles of Kirtland. Here I devoted my time diligently in the ministry and in laboring with my hands until February 1835, when I repaired to Kirtland. Apostle February 21, 1835, I was ordained one of the Twelve Apostles under the hands of Joseph Smith and others. I then immediately returned to New Portage, settled my affairs, and returned again to Kirtland, to join the Twelve on a mission eastward.
¶ Minutes of February 21, 1835 Mission to the East May 4th, we started this mission. The season was spent in preaching, visiting the churches, holding Conferences, &c., in the eastern States. August found us in the State of Maine, and in September we returned to Kirtland. ¶ Heber C. Kimball (3) School of the Prophets The winter was spent in the School of the Prophets in the House of the Lord. 1836 mission to Canada In April 1836, I took a mission to Canada, and labored through the season in the city of Toronto and round about, which mission [824] resulted in the baptism and ordination of John Taylor, Joseph Fielding and others, and in the gathering into the Church of many souls. ¶ Joseph Fielding Diary: 1832-1837

¶ Toronto Methodists
Kirtland In October of the same year I returned to Kirtland; spent the winter at home. Parley Jr. born, mother dies On the 25th of March 1837, my son Parley was born, in fulfilment of a prophecy delivered on the head of my wife, about eleven months previous, by Elder H. C. Kimball. Having lived to see and embrace her child, she died about two hours after his birth <. Returns to Canada In the spring of 1837, soon after the death of my wife, I returned to Canada on a short mission to the Saints, during which several of the Canadian Elders—viz., Joseph Fielding, Isaac Russell, John Snyder and John Goodson, were selected for a mission to England. First mission to England They were set apart, and performed that mission under the Presidency of Elders H. C. Kimball and Orson Hyde (h); this being the first introduction of the fulness of the Gospel in Europe.
Marries Mary Ann Frost May 9th, same year, I was again married, receiving the hand of Mary Ann Frost, daughter of Aaron Frost, of Maine.
New York Soon after this marriage I went to the city of New York, where, at length, I succeeded in baptizing many, among whom was Addison Everett. Parley's missionary companion is Elijah Fordham. "Voice of Warning" Here I wrote and published the "Voice of Warning," and here God manifested his power in many gifts and healings, causing the Work to spread through the city and round about. 1838 to Missouri In April 1838 I took leave of New York, and with a small colony emigrated once more to Missouri. We settled in Caldwell County in May, where I built a house and made a farm with my own hands, besides devoting much of my time to the ministry.
Imprisoned In autumn of the same year I was imprisoned with brother Joseph and others, while my family and the whole Church were robbed, plundered, and driven from the State. During his imprisonment, Parley wrote the manuscript for an 84-page pamphlet, Escape

On the fourth of July, 1839, I gained my freedom by the power of God, after eight months and four days, imprisonment, and escaped to Illinois. I found my family in Quincy, and gathering with them to Nauvoo, I again commenced to labor with my hands. 1839 mission to England with Orson On the 29th of August 1839, I started on a mission to England, in compliance with a revelation through Joseph Smith. We travelled by land, in a carriage, near six hundred miles, my brother Orson and my family accompanying me.


ather dies

We arrived at Detroit and tarried a few days with our brother Anson, and with our father and mother who then lived with him. My father, being about 70 years of age, was then laying low with a fever, and soon after died. Parley publishes History of the Late Persecution during this visit to Detroit. Winter in New York Continuing our journey, we arrived in New York some time in autumn where I tarried for the winter, having great success in the ministry. 1840 to Liverpool On the 9th of March 1840, I sailed for Liverpool, England, in company with Elders B. Young, H. C. Kimball, O. Pratt (h1) and others. We had a rough passage of twenty-eight days, and on the sixth day of April landed in Liverpool. ¶ Heber C. Kimball (5) Conference in Preston

Publishing committee

Millennial Star begins
We convened a General Conference at Preston on the 15th of April, in which Elders B. Young, H. C. Kimball and myself were appointed a publishing committee for the Church. I was also appointed editor and publisher of a monthly periodical to be called the MILLENNIAL STAR, the first number of which was issued in May, following. Mission president I continued in this publishing department between two and three years the last eighteen months of which I had the Presidency of the Church in the British Isles.

1842 to New Orleans

Winter in
Chester, Illinois

About the 20th of October 1842, I took leave of England, and sailed for New Orleans, chartering a ship called the Emerald, and taking out with me several hundreds of the Saints. We landed in New Orleans after a tedious passage of ten weeks. Passing up the river for one week I landed with my family in Chester, Illinois, where we wintered on account of the ice. In the course of the winter I paid a visit to Nauvoo on horseback, and was welcomed by brother Joseph and my friends in general. 1843 Nauvoo On the 12th of April 1843, I landed in Nauvoo with my family. The remainder of the season was spent in building, &c. 1844 The spring of 1844, I was sent out on a mission to the eastern States. I went as far as New York, held several meetings, but was constrained by the Holy Spirit to return home speedily. On arriving in Chicago, Illinois, I heard of the death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. I arrived home in time to console the Saints and assist in and keeping them together, until the return of President Young and others of the Twelve. Sketch approved March 13, 1858.—Presidents B. Young, H. C. Kimball, O. Hyde, O. Pratt, W. Woodruff, Geo. A. Smith and E. T. Benson, heard this history read by R. L. Campbell, and approved of it. March 13, 1858 was ten months to the day after the assassination of Parley P. Pratt.
Parley P. Pratt
Egging of Parley P. Pratt (1835)
Orson Pratt

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